IERS/GGFC Special Bureau for
Glacial Isostatic Adjustment
A Survey of Recent Studies
The global process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the process
whereby the Earth's shape and gravitational field are modified in response
to the large scale changes in surface mass load that have attended the
glaciation and deglaciation of the planetary surface. The last deglaciation
event of the current ice-age began at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) approximately
21,000 calendar years ago and ended approximately 5000 years ago, by which
time the cryosphere had been diminished to approximately its present geographical
extent. Prior to the present Holocene epoch of Earth history, beginning
in mid-Pleistocene time approximately 900,000 years ago, the planet
experienced 9 cycles of glaciation and deglaciation, the 100,000 year period
of the canonical glacial cycle being characterized by a glaciation phase
that lasts approximately 90,000 years and a deglaciation phase that lasts
approximately 10,000 years. At the maximum extent of each of these
glacial epochs, sea level was lowered by approximately 120 m in supplying
the water of which the great continental ice sheets of the glacial epochs
Interest in studying the response of the planet to these Pleistocene glacial
cycles derives primarily from the fact that the geological, geophysical
and astronomical data which record them are of such high quality.
Furthermore, these data are almost uniquely capable of providing firm constraints
upon the viscoelastic properties of the "solid" interior of the earth.
The rheological model that has most often been employed to invert the data
has been the linear viscoelastic Maxwell model with the elastic Lamé
parameters of this model (shear modulus, bulk modulas and density) fixed
by the constraints of global free oscillation and body wave seismology.
The single remaining parameter of the model, namely the molecular viscosity,
is then inferred by fitting the global model of the GIA process to the
observations. Not only do these data significantly constrain Earth
rheology, however, they also provide stringent constraints on a wide range
of processes related to the internal dynamics of the climate system itself.
A very recent and detailed review of this rapidly expanding body of knowledge
can be found in the paper: Peltier, W.R., 1998: Postglacial variations
in the level of the sea: implications for climate dynamics and solid earth
geophysics, Rev. Geophysics, 36, 603-689.
Among the most recent advances that have been achieved in this area are
those concerning the development of a complete version of the theory that
includes the impact of the time dependence of the ocean function upon the
adjustment process. Proper account of this impact has turned out
to require implementation of an iterative procedure first discussed in:
Peltier; W.R., 1994: Ice age Paleotopography, Science, 265, 195-201; as
well as recognition of the occurrence of a non-perturbative effect in the
solution of the integral sea level equation which is such as to require
recognition of the existence of a surface ice load in the glaciated state
that does not explicitly appear in the kernel of the linear perturbation
theory based integral sea level equation. This non-perturbative effect
was first pointed out in Peltier, W.R., 1998: Implicit ice in the global
theory of glacial isostatic adjustment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3956-3960.
When the implicit component of the ice load is recognized as having been
active in the surface unloading of areas that were initially ice covered
but later came to be inundated by the sea, one achieves a much closer agreement
with a-priori reconstructions of ice sheet form based upon solution of
the equations that govern ice accumulation and flow such as one finds in
the glaciological literature (e.g. see L. Tarasov and W.R. Peltier, 1999:
Impact of thermomechanical ice sheet coupling on a model of the 100 kyr
ice age cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9517-9545).
A further influence upon the glacial isostatic adjustment process that
has recently been investigated concerns the feedback of the changing rotational
state of the planet caused by the glaciation and deglaciation process upon
the variations of sea level that occur during the GIA process. In
the paper by B.G. Bills and T.S. James, 1996: Late Quaternary variations
in relative sea level due to glacial cycle polar wander, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 23, 3023-3026, the authors suggest that this effect would be extremely
large, large enough so as to entirely invalidate all previous analyses
that had been performed using the "sea level equation" formalism first
developed in the work of Peltier (1974; The impulse response of a Maxwell
Earth, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12, 649-669), Peltier and Andrews (1976;
Glacial isostatic adjustment I: The forward problem, Geophys. J. Roy astr.
Soc., 46, 605-646), Peltier (1976; Glacial isostatic adjustment II: The
inverse problem, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 46, 669-706) and Farrell
and Clark (1976; On postglacial sea level, Geophys. J. Roy. astr. Soc.,
46, 647-667). First solutions of the "sea level equation" for realistic
models of surface deglaciation were published by Clark, Farrell and Peltier
(1978; Global changes in postglacial sea level: a numerical calculation,
Quat. Res., 9, 265-287) and by Peltier, Farrell and Clark (1978; Glacial
isostasy and relative sea level: a global finite element model, Tectonophysics,
50, 81-110). Recent detailed analyses of the issue of rotational
feedback on the variations of relative sea level that are induced by the
deglaciation process (Milne and Mitrovica, 1996; Geophys. J. Int., 126,
F13-F20; Peltier, 1998, Inverse Problems, 14, 441-478; Peltier, 1999, Global
and Planetary change, 20, 93-123) have, however, very clearly established
that the claim of Bills and James insofar as the strength of the rotational
feedback on sea level is concerned was more than an order of magnitude
in error. This influence is in fact sufficiently weak that for almost
all purposes it may be safely neglected.
Recent developments in the formal inference of the radial viscosity structure
of the mantle based upon the GIA data are gradually leading to some concensus
among the several different groups in which this work is actively pursued.
The application of formal inverse theory to the inference of viscosity
depth dependence based upon the simultaneous inversion of the relaxation
times that characterize distinct site specific sea level histories from
previously glaciated regions, the suite of wavenumber dependent relaxation
times that characterize the postglacial recovery of Scandinavia, along
with the constraints provided by certain earth rotation observations (non-tidal
acceleration and true polar wander speed and direction) have led to a significant
refinement of our knowledge of this important transport coefficient.
As first discussed in Peltier and Jiang (1996, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23,
503-506; 1997, Surveys of Geophysics, 18, 239-277) and more recent papers
mentioned above it is now clear that the totality of these data require
that mantle viscosity increase by approximately one order of magnitude
from an average value near 0.5 x 1021
Pa s in the upper mantle and transition zone to an average value of 2-3
x 1021 Pa s in the
lower half of the lower mantle. The viscosity in this deepest part
of the mantle is constrained only by the earth rotation data. If
the modern day global rate of sea level rise (which has a magnitude near
2 mm/yr), is significantly influenced by the melting of polar ice sheets
then the rotational data must be decontaminated of this influence prior
to employing them together with the glacial isostatic adjustment constraints
to infer mantle viscosity. Allowing for the influence of such contamination
requires that the viscosity inferred for the lower half of the lower mantle
be increased, depending upon the assumed level of contamination, to a value
near 1022 Pa s (see
Figure 31 in Peltier 1998, Rev. Geophys., 36, 603-689).
In connection with the issue of mantle viscosity, there is also considerable
interest in the fine structure of the radial profile in the vicinity of
the phase transition at 660 km depth in which the mineral Olivine is transformed
into a mixture of Perovskite and Magnesiowustite. In Peltier (1985,
J. Geophys. Res., 90, 9411-9421) it was suggested that, if the convective
circulation were layered, there should be an anomalously soft layer just
above this horizon, and perhaps also an anomalously stiff layer below (an
internal lithosphere). Direct evidence for the presence of such a
soft layer has recently been forthcoming through analysis of the aspherical
geoid that is supported by the mantle convection process (e.g. see Forte
et al., 1993, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 225-228). In Peltier, 1998
(e.g. Rev. Geophys., op.cit., Inverse Problems, op.cit. and Milne et al.,
1998, EPSL, 154, 265-278), it is shown that if one simply adds such a soft
layer to the otherwise smooth viscosity profile delivered by formal inversion
than such models are firmly rejected by the observations. However,
the misfits induced by the presence of the soft layer may be eliminated
by increasing the viscosity in the remainder of the overlying transition
zone by exploiting the inherent non-uniqueness of the inverse problem (Peltier,
1998, Inverse Problems, 14, 441-478). It remains unclear as to whether
models of this kind are also able to acceptably reconcile the convection
timescale constraints, however. If they were not, this would argue
that the soft layer may be a non-Newtonian consequence of the influence
of transformational superplasticity associated with the dynamical influence
of the phase transition itself. In this entirely plausible scenario,
the soft layer would not exist for the shorter timescale glacial isostatic
adjustment process though it would profoundly influence the process of
mantle convection. This issue concerning the Newtonian or non-Newtonian
nature of the creep mechanism is one of the great unresolved enigmas that
lies at the centre of the ongoing debate concerning mantle geodynamics.
What we are able to conclude at present is that, with the possible exception
of the region of the mantle near 660 km depth, the viscosity structure
required by the GIA and convection processes are plausibly identical.
To the extent that they can be shown to be identical, we will establish
that the governing creep mechanism is Newtonian, otherwise they would be
incomprehensible given the enormous disparity in the timescales that characterize
these distinct processes.
Agassiz, L., 1840. Etudes sur
les glaciers, privately published, Neuchtel.
Allard, M. and G. Tremblay, 1983.
La dynamique littorale des les Manitounuk durant l'Holocene. Z. Geomorph.,
Argus, Donald F., 1996. Postglacial
rebound from VLBI geodesy: on establishing vertical reference, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 23, 973-977.
Argus, Donald F., W. Richard Peltier
and Michael M. Watkins, 1998. Observations of glacial isostatic adjustment
with space geodesy: New constraints on mantle viscosity and glaciation
history, J. Geophys. Res., submitted.
Barnett, T.P., 1983. Recent changes
in sea level and their possible causes, Climate Change, 5, 15-38.
Barnett, T.P., 1984. The estimation
of "Global" sea level change: A problem of uniqueness, J. Geophys.
Res., 89, 7980-7988.
Bills, Bruce G. and Thomas S. James,
1996. Late Quaternary variations in relative sea level due to glacial
cycle polar wander, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3023-3026.
Bournais, G., 1972. Voyage naturaliste
au Nouveau Quebec. Science et Nature, 109, 17-27; 110, 17-28; 112,
Carter, W.E., D.S. Robertson, T.E.
Pyle and J. Diamante, 1986. The application of geodetic radio interferometric
surveying to the monitoring of sea level, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc.,
Cathles, L.M., 1975. The Viscosity
of the Earth's Mantle, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Chappell, J. and N.J. Shackleton, 1986.
Oxygen isotopes and sea level, Nature, 324, 137-140.
Chappell, J. and H.A. Polach, 1991.
Post-glacial sea level rise from a coral record at Huon Penninsula, Papua,
New Guinea, Nature, 276, 602-604.
Chappell, John, Akio Omura, Tezer Esat,
Malcolm McCulloch, John Pandelfi, Yoko Ota and Brad Pillans, 1996.
Earth and Planetary, Sci. Lett., 141, 227-236.
Clark, J.A., Farrell, W.E. and W.R.
Peltier, 1978. Global changes in postglacial sea level: a numerical
calculation, Quat. Res., 9, 265-287.
CLIMAP Project Members, 1976.
The surface of the ice-age Earth, Science, 191, 1131-1144.
Dahlen, F.A., 1976. The passive
influence of the oceans upon the rotation of the Earth. Geophys.
J.R. astr. Soc., 46, 363-406.
Daley, R.A., 1934. The Changing
World of the Ice Age. Yale University, Press, New Haven.
Denton, G.H. and T. Hughes, 1981.
The Last Great Ice Sheets. Wiley Interscience, New York, 484 pp.
Deblonde, G. & W. R. Peltier, 1991a.
Simulations of continental ice sheet growth over the last glacial-interglacial
cycle: experiments with a one-level seasonal energy balance model
including realistic geography, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D5), 9189-9215.
Deblonde, G. & W. R. Peltier, 1991b.
A One-Dimensional Model of Continental Ice Volume Fluctuations through
the Pleistocene: Implications for the Origin of the Mid-Pleistocene climate
Transition, J. Climate, 4(3), 318-344.
Deblonde, G., W. R. Peltier, &
W. T. Hyde, 1992. Simulations of continental ice sheet growth over
the last glacial-interglacial cycle: Experiments with a one level seasonal
energy balance model including seasonal ice albedo feedback, Global Planet.
Change, 98, 37-55.
Deblonde, G. & W. R. Peltier, 1993.
Late Pleistocene Ice Age Scenarios Based on Observational Evidence, J.
Climate, 6(4), 709-727.
Denton, G.H. and T. Hughes, 1981.
The Last Great Ice Sheets, Wiley Interscience, New York.
Devoy, R.J., 1987. Introduction:
First Principles and the Scope of Sea-Surface Studies. In Sea Surface
Studies, (R.J.N. Devoy Ed.), pp. 1-32, Croom Helm Ltd., Beckenham, Kent.
Dickman, S.R., 1977. Secular
trend of the Earth's rotation pole: Consideration of motion of the latitude
observatories, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc., 57, 41-50.
Donner, J., 1980. The determination
and dating of synchronous Late Quaternary shorelines in Fennoscandia, in
Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy, pp. 285-293, ed. Morner, N.A., Willey,
Douglas, B.D., 1991. Global Sea
Level Rise, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 6981-6992.
Dyke, Arthur S. Thomas, F. Morris and
David Green, 1991. Postglacial tectonic and Sea Level History of
the Central Canadian Arctic, Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 397.
Edwards, R.L., 1988. HIgh precision
Th-230 ages of corals and the timing of sea level fluctuations in the late
Quaternary, Thesis, Cal. Inst. Tech.
Edwards, R.L., 1995. Paleotopography
of Ice-Age Ice Sheets, Science, 267, 535-536.
Eisenhauer, A., G.J. Wasserburg, J.H.
Chen, G. Bonani, L.B. Collins, Z.R. Zhu and K.H. Wyrwoll, 1993. Holocene
sea level determination relative to the Australian continent: U-Th
(TIMS) and 14C (AMS) dating of coral cores from the Abrolhos Islands, Earth
Planet. Sci. Lett., 114, 529-547.
Elias, S.A., S.K. Short and R.L. Phillips,
1992. Quat. Res., 38, 371-383.
Eronen, M. 1983. Late Weichselian
and Holocene shore displacement in Finland, in Shorelines and Isostasy,
pp. 183-207, eds. Smith, D.E. and Dawson, A.G. Academic Press, London.
Fairbanks, R.G., 1989. A 17,000-year
glacio-eustatic sea level record: Influence of glacial melting rates
on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation, Nature, 342, 637-641.
Fang, M. and B.H. Hager, 1995.
The singularity mystery associated with radially continuous Maxwell viscoelastic
structure, Geophys. J. Int., 123, 849-865.
Farrell, W.E., 1972. Deformation
of the Earth by surface loads, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 10, 761-797.
Farrell, W.E. and J.A. Clark, 1976.
On postglacial sea level, Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 46, 647-667.
Goldsby, D.L. and D.L. Kohlstedt, 1997.
Grain boundary sliding in fine-grained ICE I, Scripta Materiali 37, 1399.
Goldsby, D.L., 1997. Ph.D. Thesis,
Goldsby, D.L. and D.L. Kohlstedt, 1997.
Proceedings of the 28th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference,
Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 429.
Gore, Rick, 1997. The most ancient
Americans. National Geographic, 192, 92-99.
Han, D. and J. Wahr, 1995. The
visco-elastic relaxation of a realistically stratified Earth, and a further
analysis of postglacial rebound, Geophys. J. Int., 120, 287-311.
Hardy, L., 1976. Contribution
in a l'etude geomorphologique de la portion Quebecoise de la Baie de James.
Ph.D. Memoire, McGill University, 264. pp.
Haskell, N.A., 1935. The motion
of a fluid under a surface load, 1, Physics, 6, 265-269.
Hays, J.D., J. Imbrie, & N.J. Shackleton,
1976. Variations in the Earth's orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages,
Science, 194, 1121-1132.
Hillaire-Marcel, Claude, 1976.
La deglaciation et le relevement isostatique a l'est de la baie Hudson.
Cah. Geogr. Quebec, 20, 185-220.
Hillaire-Marcel, Claude, 1980.
Multiple component postglacial emergence, Eastern Hudson Bay, Canada.
In Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy (ed. Nils-Axel Mrner), 215-230,
Johon Wiley and Sons, New York.
James, T.S. and J. Morgan, 1990.
Horizontal motions due to postglacial rebound. Geophys. Res. Lett.,
17, 957-960, 1990.
James, T.S. and A. Lambert, 1993.
A comparison of VLBI data with the ICE-3G glacial rebound model, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20, 870-874.
Jamieson, T.F., 1865. On the
history of the last geological changes in Scotland, Quart. J. Geol. Soc.
Lond., 21, 161-203.
Jamieson, T.F., 1882. On the
course of the depression and re-elevation of the land during the glacial
period, Geol. Mag., 9, 400-407 and 457-466.
Jiang, Xianhua and W.R. Peltier, 1996.
Ten million year histories of obliquity and precession: The influence
of the ice-age cycle, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 139, 17-32.
Johnston, P., 1993. The effect
of spatially non-uniform water loads on predictions of sea level change,
Geophys. J. Int., 114, 615-634.
Johnston, Paul, Kurt Lambeck and Detlet
Wolf, 1997. Material versus isobaric internal boundaries in the Earth
and their influence on postglacial rebound, Geophys. J. Int., 129, 252-268.
Lamb, H.H., 1972. Climate:
Present, Past and Future, Methuen, London, Vol. 1, 613 pp.
Lambeck, K., P. Johnston and M. Nakada,
1990. Holocene glacial rebound and sea-level change in NW Europe,
Geophys. J. Int., 103, 451-468.
Lambeck, Kurt, Paul Johnston, Catherine
Smither and Masao Nakada, 1996. Glacial rebound of the British Isles
III: Constraints on mantle viscosity. Geophys. J. Int., 125,
Laskar, J., 1988. Secular evolution
of the solar system over 10 million years, Astron. Astrophys., 198, 341-362.
Laskar, J., F. Joutel and F. Boudin,
1993. Orbital, precessional, and insolation quantities for the Earth
from -20 Myr to +10 Myr, Astron. Astrophys., 270, 522-533.
Lee, H.A., 1962. Method of deglaciation
of submergence and rate of uplift west and east of Hudson Bay. Biol.
Perygl. (Lodz), 11, 239-245.
Libby, Willard F., 1952. Radiocarbon
Dating, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Litherland, A.E., 1980. Ultrasensitive
mass spectrometry with accelerators, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Past. Sci., 30, 437-473.
Lourens, L.J., A. Antonarakou, F.J.
Hilgen, A.A.M. Van Hoof, C. Vergnaud-Grazzini and W.J. Zacharlasse, 1996.
Evaluation of the Plio-Pleistocene astronomical timescale, Paleoceanography,
Lowden, J.A. and W. Blake Jr., 1980.
Geological Survey of Canada paper 80-7, 22 pp.
MacLaren, C., 1842. The glacial
theory of Professor Aggasiz, Am. J. Sci., 42, 346-365.
McConnell, R.K., 1968. Viscosity
of the mantle from relaxation time spectra of isostatic adjustment, J.
Geophys. Res., 73, 7089-7105.
Meier, M., 1984. Contribution
of small glaciers to global sea level, Science, 226, 1418-1421.
Milne, G.A. and J.X. Mitrovica, 1996.
Postglacial sea level change on a rotating Earth: first results from a
gravitationally self-consistent sea level equation. Geophys. J. Int.,
Mitrovica, J.X. and W.R. Peltier, 1991.
On postglacial geoid subsidence over the equatorial oceans. J. Geophys.
Res., 96, 20053-20071.
Mitrovica, J.X. and W.R. Peltier, 1993a.
The inference of mantle viscosity from an inversion of the Fennoscandian
relaxation spectrum, Geophys. J. Int., 114, 45-62.
Mitrovica, J.X. and W.R. Peltier, 1993b.
Present day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of the Earth's geopotential,
J. Geophys. Res., 98, 4509-4526.
Mitrovica, J.X., J.L. Davis and I.I.
Shapiro, 1994. A spectral formalism for computing three dimensional
deformations due to surface loads, 2. present day glacial isostatic adjustment,
J. Geophys. Res., 99, 7075-7101.
Mitrovica, J.X. and W.R. Peltier, 1995.
Constraints on mantle viscosity based upon the inversion of past-glacial
uplift data from the Hudson Bay region, Geophys. J. Int., 122, 353-377.
Mitrovica, J.X. and A.M. Forte, 1997.
Radial profile of mantle viscosity: Results from the joint inversion of
convection and postglacial rebound observables. Geophys. J. Int.,
Morrison, L.V., 1973. Rotation
of the Earth and the constancy of G., Nature, 241, 519-520.
Muller, P.M. and F.R. Stephson, 1975.
The acceleration of the Earth and Moon from early observations. In
Growth Rythms and History of the Earth's Rotation, G.D. Rosenburg and S.K.
Runcorn eds., pp. 459-534, Wiley, New York.
Muller, R.A. & G.J. MacDonald,
1995. Glacial cycles and orbital inclination, Nature, 377, 107-108,
Munk, W.H. and MacDonald, G.F., 1960.
The Rotation of the Earth, Cambridge Univ. Press, London and New York.
Nakada, M. and K. Lambeck, 1991.
In Glacial Isostasy and Mantle Rheology, R. Sabadini and K. Lambeck eds.,
Kluwer Academic Publishers Inc., Dordrecht, pp. 120-157.
Newton, R.R., 1972. Medieval
Chronicles and the Rotation of the Earth, John's Hopkins University Press,
Nerem, R.S., B.J. Haines, J. Hendricks,
J.F. Minster, G.T. Mitchum and W.B. White, 1997. Improved determination
of global mean sea level variations using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1331-1334.
Nerem, R.S., K.E. Rachlin and B.D.
Beckley, 1997. Characteristics of global mean sea level variations
observed by TOPEX/POSEIDON using empirical orthogonal functions, Surveys
in Geophysics, 18, 293-302.
Ota, Y., J. Chappell, R. Kelley, N.
Yonekura, E. Matsumoto, T. Nishimura and J. Head, 1993. Holocene
coral reef terraces and coseismic uplift at Huon Penninsula, Papua, New
Guinea, Quat. Res., 40, 177-188.
Peltier, W.R., 1974. The impulse
response of a Maxwell Earth. Rev. Geophys. Space Physics, 12, 649-669.
Peltier, W.R., 1976. Glacial
isostatic adjustment II. The inverse problem, Geophys. J.R. Astron.
Soc., 46, 669-706.
Peltier, W.R. and J.T. Andrews, 1976.
Glacial isostatic adjustment I. The forward problem, Geophys.
J.R. Astron. Soc., 46, 605-646.
Peltier, W.R., W.E. Farrell and J.A.
Clark, 1978. Glacial isostasy and relative sea level: a global finite
element model, Tectonophysics, 50, 81-110.
Peltier, W.R., 1982. Dynamics
of the ice-age Earth, Advances in Geophysics, 24, 1-146.
Peltier, W.R., 1983. Constraint
on deep mantle viscosity from LAGEOS acceleration data, Nature, 304, 434-436.
Peltier, W.R., 1984. The thickness
of the continental lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 303-316.
Peltier, W.R., 1985. New constraints
on transient lower mantle rheology and internal mantle buoyancy from glacial
rebound data, Nature, 318, 614-617.
Peltier, W.R., 1985. The LAGEOS
constraint on deep mantle viscosity: results from a new normal mode method
for the inversion of viscoelastic relaxation spectra, J. Geophys. Res.,
Peltier, W.R., 1986. Deglaciation
induced vertical motion of the North American continent and transient lower
mantle rheology, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 9099-9123.
Peltier, W.R., 1988. Global sea
level and Earth rotation, Science, 240, 895-901.
Peltier, W.R., 1989. Mantle viscosity,
In Mantle Convection, W.R. Peltier ed., pp. 479-593, Gordan and Breach,
Peltier, W.R. and A.M. Tushingham,
1989. Global sea level rise and the greenhouse effect: Might
they be connected?, Science, 244, 806-810.
Peltier, W.R., A.M. Forte, J.X. Mitrovica
and A.M. Dziewonski, 1992. Earth's gravitational field: Seismic tomography
resolves the enigma of the Laurentian anomaly, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19,
Peltier, W.R. and L.P. Solheim, 1992.
Mantle phase transitions and layered chaotic convection, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 19, 321-324.
Peltier, W.R, 1994. Ice-Age Paleotopography,
Science, 265, 195-201.
Peltier, W.R. and Xianhua Jiang, 1994,
The precession constant of the Earth: Variations through the ice-age, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21, 2299-2302.
Peltier, W.R., 1995. Paleotopography
of Ice-Age ice sheets, Science, 267, 536-538.
Peltier, W.R., 1995. VLBI baselines
for the ICE-4G model of postglacial rebound, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 465-469.
Peltier, W. R. & S. Marshall, 1995.
Coupled energy-balance/ice-sheet simulations of the glacial cycle: A possible
connection between terminations and terrigenous dust, J. Geophys. Res.,
Peltier, W.R. and X. Jiang, 1996.
Glacial isostatic adjustment and earth rotation: refined constrains on
the viscosity of the deepest mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 3269-3290.
Peltier, W.R. and X. Jiang, 1996.
Mantle viscosity from the simultaneous inversion of multiple data sets
pertaining to postglacial rebound. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 503-506.
Peltier, W.R., 1996. Mantle viscosity
and ice-age ice sheet topography, Science, 273, 1359-1364.
Peltier, W.R., 1996. Global sea
level rise and glacial isostatic adjustment: an analysis of data
from the east coast of the North American continent, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
Peltier, W.R., 1996. Phase transition
modulated mixing in the mantle of the Earth, Phil. Trans. Roys. Soc., Ser.
A., 354, 1425-1447.
Peltier, W.R., 1997. Correction
to the paper "Glacial isostatic adjustment and earth rotation: refined
constraints on the viscosity of the deepest mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 102,
Peltier, W.R., and Xianhua Jiang, 1997.
Mantle viscosity, glacial isostatic adjustment and the eustatic level of
the sea, Surveys in Geophysics, 18, 239-277.
Peltier, W.R., 1998. A space
geodetic target for mantle viscosity discrimination: Horizontal motions
induced by glacial isostatic ajdustment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 543-546.
Peltier, W.R., 1998. Global sea
level rise and glacial isostatic adjustment. Global and Planetary
Change, in press.
Peltier, W.R., 1998. The Inverse
Problem for Mantle Viscosity, Inverse Problems, 14, 441-478.
Peltier, W.R., 1998. "Implicit
Ice" in the gravitationally self-consistent global theory of glacial isostatic
adjustment, Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted.
Peltier, W.R., 1998. Postglacial
variations in the level of the sea: implications for climate dynamics and
solid earth geophysics, Rev. Geophysics, 36, 603-689.
Peltier, W.R. and I. Shennan, 1998.
On the postglacial sea level history of the British Isles, Geophys. J.
Int., to be submitted.
Peltier, W. Richard, David L. Goldsby,
David L. Kohlsted and Lev Tarasov, 1998. Science, in press.
Platzman, George W., 1971. Ocean
tides and related waves. In Mathematical Problems in the Geophysical
Sciences 2. Inverse Problems, Dynamo Theory and Tides, W.H. Reid
Ed., pp. 239-291, Lectures in Applied Mathematics, Volume 14. Am.
Math. Sco., Providence, Rhode Island.
Plumet, P., 1974. L'archeologie
et le relevement isostatique a Poste-de-la-Baleine, Nouveau Quebec.
Rev. Geogr. Montreal, 28, 443-446.
Portman, J.P, 1970. Geomorphologie
de l'aire myriametrique de Poste-de-la-Baleine, Nouveau Quebec. Quebec
Seidelman, P.L., 1982. 1980 IAU
theory of nutation: The final report of the IAU working group on
nutation, Celest. Mech, 27, 79-106.
Shackleton, N.J., 1967. Oxygen
isotope analyses and Pleistocene temperatures re-addressed, Nature, 215,
Shackleton, N.J., 1987. Oxygen
isotopes, ice volume and sea level, Quat. Sci. Rev., 6, 183-190.
Shackleton, N.J., A. Berger and W.R.
Peltier, 1990. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 81, 251-261.
Stephenson, E.R. and Morrison, L.V.,
1995. Long term fluctuations in the Earth's rotation: 700 B.C.
to A.D. 1990, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 351, 165-202.
Stuiver, M., B. Kromer, B. Becker and
C.W. Ferguson, 1986. Radiocarbon age calibration back to 13,300 years
BP and the 14C age matching of the German oak and US bristle cone pine
chronologies, Radiocarbon, 28, 969-979.
Stuiver, M. and P.J. Reimer, 1993.
Extended 14C data base and revised calib. 3.0 14C age calibration program.
Radiocarbon, 35, 215-230.
Thompson, D.J., 1990. Quadratic
inverse spectrum estimates: Applications to Paleoclimatology, Philos.
Trans. R. Soc. London A, 332, 539-597.
Tushingham, A.M. and W.R. Peltier,
1991. ICE-3G: A new global model of late Pleistocene deglaciation
based upon geophysical predictions of post-glacial relative sea level change,
J. Geophys. Res., 96, 4497-4523.
Tushingham, A.M. and W.R. Peltier,
1992. Validation of the ICE-3G model of Wrm-Wisconsin deglaciation
using a global data base of relative sea level histories, J. Geophys. Res.,
Vermeersen, L.L.A., and R. Sabadini,
1996. Significance of the fundamental mantle relaxation made in polar
wander simulations, Geophys. J. Int., 127, F5-F9.
Vermeesen, L.L.A., Sabadini, R. and
Spada, G., 1996. Analytical visco-elastic relaxation models, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 23, 697-700.
Vincente, R.O. and S. Yumi, 1969.
Co-ordinates of the pole (1899-1968) returned to the conventional international
origin, Publ. Int. Latit. Obs. Mizusawa, 7, 41-50.
Vincente, R.O. and S. Yumi, 1970.
Revised values (1941-1961) of the co-ordinates of the pole referred to
the CIO, Publ. Int. Latit. Obs. Mizusawa, 7, 109-112.
Walcott, R.I., 1972. Late Quaternary
vertical movements in eastern North America, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,
Walcott, R.I., 1973. Structure
of the earth from glacio-isostatic rebound, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.,
Walcott, R.I., 1980. Rheological
modes and observational data of glacio-isostatic rebound. In Earth
Rheology, Isostasy and Eustacy (N.-A. Mrner ed.), pp. 3-10. Wiley,
Weertman, J., 1978. Creep laws
for the mantle of the Earth, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London, Ser. A., 110-125.
Wolf, Detlef, 1996. Note on estimates
of the glacial-isostatic decay spectrum for Fennoscandia, Geophys. J. Int.,
Wu, Patrick and W.R. Peltier, 1982.
Viscous gravitational relaxation, Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 70, 435-485.
Wu, Patrick and W.R. Peltier, 1984.
Pleistocene deglaciation and the Earth's rotation: a new analysis, Geophys.
J.R. astr. Soc., 76, 202-242.
Yoder, C.F., J.G. Williams, J.O. Dickey,
B.E. Schutz, R.J. Eanes and B.D. Tapley, 1983. Secular variation
of the Earth's gravitational harmonic J2 coefficient from LAGEOS and non-tidal
acceleration of Earth rotation, Nature, 303, 757-762.
Core | Gravity/Geocenter|
Last Updated: April 10, 2000